Glossary of Terms

Terms explained, jargon busted.

1P App

See Data Account-enabled Application

1P D App

See Data Account-Enabled Dashboard Application


Application Programming Interface

API Call

A network request to a server to carry out a particular task through an API.


The number of Data Passport holders who have activated a Data Pass. Can be further subdivided into specific Data Pass-attributed audiences.

Auth Service

Used by the Contracted PDA service, Auth Service provides a mechanism for obtaining a single short lived access token (JWT) for a set of PDAs. The short lived access token uses a public key id. This key is retrieved by the PDS requesting it from the Auth Service.

Contracted PDA

Refers to the PDA that a PDA owner has contracted with a Client to provide the Client’s Application with access credentials to a shared namespace via the Auth Service. Read more here.

Contracted Service Provider

A Client that operates an Application, and may operate another application or server used in conjunction with the Application, that has been provided with Contracted PDA access by a PDS Owner.


The number of Individuals who have arrived at a data merchant to claim an offer made through a Data Terminal.


Basic operations of persistent storage. See,_read,_update_and_delete

Data Account

The term used to describe the namespace within the database of the DDS and the service of enabling its use by applications and where the data stored within are self-sovereign data.

Data Account-enabled Application (or 1P App)

A software application that is integrated with Dataswyft One platform, that enables the storage of their application’s first-party data subject data into a data account, where the application has full access (CRUD) rights to the data in that data account.

1P App data is produced and accessed by the data subject only, through the “owner token”.

Data Account-enabled Dashboard Application (or 1P D App)

A software application that is created by a Dataswyft client, integrated with Dataswyft One platform, that enables the storage of their application’s first-party data subject data into a namespace of the data subject‘s server database, where the application has full access (CRUD) rights to the data in that namespace. The data subject‘s data is NOT produced by the data subject but is about the data subject, and stored in a namespace and can be accessed through contracted PDA credentials, permitted by the data subject as the database owner, by way of a special contract.

Data Acquirers

Organizations with a data terminal or data terminal enabled application that receives data from self sovereign data owners.

Data Asset or Self-Sovereign Data Asset

A well-defined piece or bundle of data that is self sovereign in a Data Account, usually verifiable by a producer, and generates income from its usage.

Data Asset Issuer / Data Pass Verifier

A service provider that verifies the data described on a Data Pass from the source data.

Data Connector

API to API service that connects a third-party data source into Data Accounts.

Data Debit

A technical process of enabling access to Data Account data and/or file in the File Storage System not associated with the primary data account of the Data Account-enabled application.

Data Ecosystem or Ecosystem

A sub-group of Dataswyft network consisting of users and owners of a Data Passport-enabled application, users and owners of Data Terminal-enabled applications, and users and owners of Data Connector-enabled applications that interact amongst themselves in the usage of self-sovereign data.

Data Ecosystem owner or Ecosystem owner

An organization that owns, or is a licensee of, a Data Passport-enabled application and has created Data Passes within the Data Passport for use within their ecosystem.

Data Ecosystem Manager

The organization that manages the ecosystem under contract with the ecosystem owner. Ecosystem owners can also manage their own ecosystems.

Data Ecosystem Supply Partner

An organization that has a data-connector enabled application to write data described in a Data Pass into a data account whereby the Data Pass is presented in the Data Ecosystem owner‘s Data Passport

Data Ecosystem Demand Partner

An organization that has a data terminal or data terminal enabled application that Is permitted to offer against or use data described in Data Passes of an ecosystem owner.

Data Exchange Scheme

A set of stewardship and governance principles that sits above the legal data exchange between data producers, self sovereign data owners and data acquirers that adheres to a framework set by an ecosystem.

Data Merchants or Merchants

Users of Data Terminal-enabled applications representing their organizations.

Data Observatory

Dataswyft‘s collaboration with academic and industry partners on network data

Data Pass

The description of a single or a bundle of data attributes, together with the information of the source and verifier of the data. A Data Pass can be activated by a Data Subject and by activation, qualify themselves as having the data or exhibiting the attribute described in the Data Pass.

Data Pass Transaction

A Data Pass can be transacted on by the Data Subject at a Data Terminal, thereby EITHER (1) permitting the bundle of data described in the Data Pass to be shared through a Dataswyft Transaction OR (2) allow the Data Terminal to verify the data described in the Data Pass.

Data Pass Verifier / Data Asset Issuer

A service provider that verifies the data described on a Data Pass.

Data Passport-enabled Application

A Data Account-enabled application (1P App) that has an embedded Data Passport.

Data Passport

A Dataswyt Network service that is a component of an application that presents Data Passes in a way that is clear about the data within each Data Pass, and where offers against the Data Passes can be viewed and where Data Passes can be activated and used by Data Subjects. Data Passports are usually a component of a Data Wallet.

Data Passport Holders

Legal entities (natural or legal persons) or their representatives who are users of a Data Passport-enabled application.

Data Passport Issuer

Owner or a licensee of a Data Passport-enabled application.

Data Plug

A special Data Connector that connects an open API third-party data source into Data Accounts as a Data Subject Access Request.

Data Provider / Producer / Source

Legal entities that have generated first party data through their ownership of applications, websites, devices or tools and have stored the data in data accounts through the use of the Dataswyft API Platform

Data Terminal

A Dataswyft Network service that is authorized to (1) receive data from Data Accounts, (2) verify data described in Data Passes, and (3) make offers against Data Passes.

Data Terminal-enabled Application

A network-enabled application that with the rights to write into the Data Terminal Namespace of a Server Database

Data Wallet

A generic name for an application that enables the sharing of data with other organizations. Data wallets can have multiple functionalities and can include a Data Passport.

Data Wallet Owner

See Data Passport holder

Data Wallet Provider

Legal owner of a Data Wallet Application.

Dataswyft API Platform

(1) A set of APIs that is used by applications, websites or other tools that enable the creation, storage, access, process, update, delete, transfer and stream (collectively, “usage” or “use”) of self-sovereign data and (2) A set of APIs that is used to by applications, websites or other tools to discover, match and enable interoperability (collectively “facilitate the use”) of self-sovereign data. (3) A set of APIs that enable the development and testing of applications, devices, websites or other tools (collectively “building”) for interacting with self-sovereign data.

Dataswyft One API

Application Programming Interfaces developed by Dataswyft to enable provisioning of Decentralized Data Servers and Data Accounts for an application.

Dataswyft One Client

An organization that has entered into a Client Services Agreement with Dataswyft and holds HCF (HAT Community Foundation) membership, and is authorized to create network-enabled applications.

Dataswyft ONE Platform

A set of APIs to enable Apps to store, process, read, update, and delete data within their specificed Data Accounts for individual legal entities.

Dataswyft Network

A network of multiple applications creating, reading, updating, deleting, and sharing self-sovereign data.

Dataswyft Network Principals

See Network Principals

Dataswyft Network Affiliates

Service Providers that participate indirectly in the activity of the Dataswyft Network through the sponsorship of a Network Principal or Member.

Dataswyft Prime

A set of APIs to enable Apps to store, process, read, update, and delete data within their specificed Data Accounts for organisational legal entities.

Dataswyft System or Dataswyft API Platform

A set of of APIs that is used to build applications in the Dataswyft Network that store, process, update, delete and share self-sovereign data and other personal, non-personal and content data that facilitate its use.

Dataswyft Transaction

Data flows between Data Servers and approved client app/website or server characterised through the Dataswyft proprietary information flow control system and authorized through standard or specialized contracts. Outbound transactions are data flows out of a Data Server and Inbound transactions are data flows into a Data Server.

Dataswyft Vault

A decentralized architecture of micro-database technology that ensures database owners’ data is stored in a secure, tightly controlled and functional cloud database and separated from the data of all other database owners.

Decentralized Data Server (DDS)

A web server and a database, associated with a URL as the identifier of the database owner, that is provisioned and hosted for individuals and organisations by Dataswyft. Also called a HAT Microserver.

Decentralized Self-Sovereign Data

See Self-Sovereign Data

DDS Cluster Manager (Milliner)

The DDS Cluster Manager (Milliner) is a proprietary turnkey solution for running the DDS at scale on public cloud infrastructure. In the case of the DDS, a microservice serves only one primary user as well as applications, requiring only a fraction of the storage and compute capabilities of a large enterprise system.

The DDS Cluster Manager also adopts the role of a credential broker that monitors underlying resources and manages underlying infrastructure, providing an administrative dashboard to monitor platform health.

DDS Dashboard / HAT App

The DDS Dashboard app is a dashboard for all data within a DDS.

DDS Owner or Server Owner

Owner of a DDS that is a legal person – can be a natural person (individual) or an organization.

DDS Provisioning Service (Hatters)

The DDS Provisioning Service (Hatters) service was built to serve as the main gateway into the Dataswyft One platform for both users directly signing up for a DDS and developers to sign up their users.

Developers Portal

Dataswyft’s Developers Portal (currently accessible at


See Data Ecosystem

Ecosystem Manager

See Data Ecosystem Manager

Ecosystem owner

See Data Ecosystem owner

Edge Function or Edge AI

See Smart HAT Engine Function


The number of individuals who have marked an offer as a "Favourite" in a Data Passport.

File Storage System

Files held in a storage system and managed by Dataswyft, linked to specific Data Accounts and encrypted at rest.

First-Party Data

Data originating from an application. First-party data can be made self-sovereign data if stored in Data Accounts.

HAT Framework

The Framework originally instituted by the HAT Research Project on privacy, security and ownership rights as well as the exchange, permission and execution models of the HAT Microserver; operationalised by the HAT Community Foundation, and implemented and operated by Dataswyft Ltd.


The APIs that enable interactions between a HAT Microserver and other systems (outside that HAT Microserver).


See DDS Dashboard App

HAT Microserver

See Decentralized Data Server


HAT Community Foundation, a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales with company number 9933330. HCF provides the regulatory and governance standards for Dataswyft One Platform operated by Dataswyft Ltd.


HAT Microserver Instructions Contract: the contract set up by Dataswyft between a data server owner and application owners for the storage of data in Data Accounts within a server owner’s database.


The number of views of offers for a Data Pass.

See Decentralized Data Servers (DDS)

Any legal entity that can act the way a human person can in law – i.e. enter into contracts, sue and be sued, own property, etc. Legal persons can be organizations, natural persons or sovereign states.


see Data Merchants


An alphanumeric attribute of a data record used for addressing data within a server database, either directly via an API endpoint or using Data Debits. A Data Account-enabled Application is typically assigned one namespace to freely read and write data.

Natural Person

A person (in legal meaning, i.e., one who has its own legal personality) that is an individual human being. Historically, a human being was not necessarily a natural person in some jurisdictions where slavery existed (subject of a property right) rather than a person.

Network Income

The income generated by Data Assets on the Dataswyft Network.

Network Operator

The operator of the Dataswyft Network. Dataswyft Sdn Bhd is a data network operator, enabling multiple Data Ecosystems to be interoperable with one another and distributing network income to Network Principals. See Dataswyft Network.

Network-enabled Applications

Applications integrated with the Dataswyft System APIs ie. Data Passport-enabled Applications, Data Connector-enabled Applications, Data Terminal-enabled Applications.

Network Members

Data Wallet owners and Data Merchants

Network Principals

Organizations that (1) issue Data Assets (Data Asset Issuers); (2) operate a Data Passport-enabled application (Data Wallet Providers); (3) acquire merchants users of a Data Terminal-enabled application (Merchant Acquirers) and Dataswyft. Network Principals receive network income from the use of data assets.

Organization Data Server (ODS)

A Decentralized Data Server whereby the owner is an organization.

Organization Data Account (ODA)

A Data Account of an Organization Data Server.

ODA or ODS Owner

An organization that is also a legal person that has been provisioned an Organization Data Server by Dataswyft. It is the legal owner of the server database and its corresponding namespaces within the database, and has the right to enter into HMICs for the purpose of granting access and storage of data into a Data Account and licensing of data from a Data Account.

Passport Holders or Data Passport holder

Data Subjects who are legal persons and end users of a Data Passport-enabled Application and are also server owners licensing data from their server database.

Synonymised with Data Wallet owner

PDA Data

Data held in a Server Owner’s Data Account and data held in the File Storage System that is accessible by a Server owner where the server owner is a natural person.

PDA or PDS Owner

An individual who is a natural person and a data subject that has been provisioned a Decentralized Data Server by Dataswyft. It is the legal owner of the server database and its corresponding Data Accounts within the database, and has the right to enter into HMICs for the purpose of granting access and storage of data into a Data Account and licensing of data from a Data Account.

Personal Data

Any information relating to an identified or identifiable natural person (an identifiable natural person being someone who can be identified directly or indirectly by reference to unique identifiers or other personal factors).

Personal Data Account (PDA)

Data Account for natural persons (individuals).

Personal Data Server (PDS)

DDS that has been provisioned for natural persons (individuals). Also called HAT Microserver or Personal Database Server (legacy term).

Platform Personal Data

Any personal data within a Data Account, that may or may not also exist within client servers or applications. Also self-sovereign data.

Policy Stack (of Dataswyft One)

A group of processes pertaining to legal, economic and governance principles and rules of Dataswyft One Platform, increasing in abstraction from bottom to top.

Primary Data Account

The primary namespace of a Data Account-enabled Application that the application has full access rights to read/write/update and delete.


The number of Data Passport holders that can view all Data Passes and Offers within a Data Passport-enabled application.

Regulated DDS

A DDS belonging to a server owner that is a regulated legal entity e.g. a child that is subject to stewardship and governance rules on data at rest, in transit and in use.

Rules Engine

An engine that executes the rules determining the flow of data entering and leaving a server database and where it should be stored within the database.

Scheme or Self-Sovereign Data Scheme or Data Asset Scheme

SSData Schemes are frameworks that guide the data portability and usage rules of a particular set of self-sovereign data or an ecosystem, deem to require special handling or stewardship E.g. if participants are vulnerable, or if the data assets are sensitive in nature.

Second-Party Data

Data received by a legal entity that was not generated or produced by the legal entity but of which has been given the license to use the data.

Self-Sovereign Data or Decentralized Self-Sovereign Data or SSData

Data where the Intellectual Property of the data is owned and licensable by a data subject and is therefore an asset class that can form markets because of the ability to separate the supply of the data from its demand.

SSData are created either by an application that is directly connected to the servers and uses DDS storage as primary storage, or when a data producer synchronizes a copy of their centralized data to be “re-homed” to their customers in the DDS.

Self-Sovereign Data owners

Owners of server databases that hold self spvereign data

Self-Sovereign Data Wallet

A data wallet that has Data Passes of self-sovereign data.

Server owner or Server database owner

The owner of a Decentralized Data Server Database.

Staging Environment Services

The environment within which applications are built and tested by developers as more particularly described in Schedule 2 (Services).

Smart HAT Engine (SHE) Functions or Edge Functions

Serverless functions that are tools to transform self-sovereign data through algorithmic or analytic computations that deposit their outputs into the same database. SHE Functions sit within an environment where third-party code written in a number of different languages can operate on self-sovereign data, and contribute outputs into the database without leaking the data to third parties.

Smart Data

Data created by Smart HAT Engine functions

Third-Party Data

Data generated or produced by a legal entity that has no direct legal relationship with the receiving party.

Traffic Fee

The fee for the traffic originating from a Data Passport to the claim of an offer.

Transformed Data

Data is considered to be transformed if the original data from the APIs cannot be re-constructed from the transformed data.

Transaction Controller (DEX)

The Transaction Controller (DEX) is a proprietary service. It logs all data related to data transfers in the Dataswyft Network, responds to DDS requests to create Data Debits, authorizes network-enabled applications and associated HAT Microserver Instructions (HMI), holds data transactions, verifies exchanges, and quickly, accurately, and securely sends and receives data between parties. The Transaction Controller service also logs the data contracts between server owners and network-enabled applications.

Last updated